Why are you giving it to him? Do it for me. Lui va a comprarcela. Below is list of words with irregular past participles and irregular conjugations in general. However, irregular conjugations will continue to be listed. The passive version of a sentence essentially changes the order to OVS, emphasizing the object receiving the action from the subject. Look at the example below. I turisti comprano biglietti. This sentence emphasizes the subject doing the action to the object.
Biglietti sono comprati dai turisti. Tickets are bought by tourists. You can use essere and venire. The use of essere suggests that the object frequently or habitually receives the action. Tickets in general, not any specific tickets, are bought by tourists on a regular basis, after all. On the other hand, if the tickets in question are of specific kind, those tickets are only available for a set time, so you could use venire as you do in the following example.
I biglietti a Spagna vengono comprati. The tickets to Spain are being bought. This case is called a dynamic passive, which describes a process being done. The former case is called a static passive, which describes a process in general. They discourage the purchase of potentially fraudulent art, and defend important artistic and cultural assets that Italy has from those who would tarnish it. The photographs are examples of important pieces of Italian artistic heritage. Rewrite the given sentence using double objects. Sto scrivendo una lettera a mia sorella.
Nostra figlia vuole suonare la sonata per noi. Signora Costa ha dato il giocattolo al suo nipote.. Hanno inviato i inviti a voi. Tu sai che Arianna sta comprando vestiti per Loro. Il prete the priest ha condotto il servizio religioso per il pubblico. Do messaggi al Presidente del Consiglio.
Translate the given sentence in Italian, making correct use of irregular past participles. I put the bowl of salad on the table. Did you informal read J. My mother closed the door before going shopping. He told his friend female that he was going on vacation. He took a class in classical music. Did he light the candle la candela? You formal and Danielle chose to go home after the show. They broke their legs and did not respond to the doctor. The soccer team won the game, and were still very happy. Write the following sentences in the passive voice.
Mia madre ha mangiato tre arancie. Maria ed io stiamo vedendo il film. Si vendono molti biglietti del teatro ogni giorno. Molti studenti suonano il piano qui. I professori stanno dando lezioni gratuite free lessons. Le vecchie fanno pasta per la Quaresima questo anno. Le ballerine si esercitano la danza. Storytelling The portion of the Roman Forum, pictured below, is representative of how the stories of ancient times have survived to this day. Stories convey all sorts of important morals and ideas to children and adults alike. In this chapter, you will learn to convey these things in stories of your own.
Learn to tell stories in Italian, and express more complex feelings. Learn how to use the subjunctive and the trapassato prossimo. The subjunctive mood suggests notions of uncertainty, doubt, possibility, wishful thinking, personal hopes, opinions, etc. You can use any verb that you can form such an expression with. Examples of expressions that indicate the use of the subjunctive include: Io sono felice che The subjunctive conjugation always goes after the che in the expression.
Following are tables listing the regular conjugations of subjunctive verbs. Unlike Spanish, expressions such as credo che or penso che do call for the use of the subjunctive. Subjunctive Clues An acronym for clues for using the subjunctive: Denial, disbelief, doubts Uncertainty or possibility Commands In subjunctive clauses, the subjunctive verb usually follows a conjunction such as that, whether, despite, or provided that.
Below is a list of words that subjunctive verbs usually follow. Spero che tu vada a casa oggi. I hope that you come home today.
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Devi andare a casa prima che sia troppo tardi. Vai allo spettacolo con Lorenzo a meno che lui non venga. Look at the example. He is the man that stole my wallet! You use chi and cui after prepositions. Chi refers to people, but cui refers to things. Look at the following sentence: Io conosco due persone i cui nonni vivono con loro.
I know two people whose grandparents live with them. This is because the gender is specified. An adverbial expression adds a quality to a noun in the manner shown in the example. Trovo un traduttore che parli il russo e il francese. In English, it would be called the past perfect. This tense serves to communicate the meaning of had done something. When I arrived, my family had already eaten. In Roman mythology, Rome and by extension, Italy was settled by the Trojan prince, Aeneas, who served as a transition from Greek culture to Roman culture. Romulus and Remus were the twins born to Rhea Silvia and the war god Mars, one of the most important gods of imperial Rome.
They fought over the foundation of Rome, whether to be on Aventine or Palatine Hill. Remus was killed in the struggle, and Romulus went on to build Rome. The Romans built grand temples to worship their gods. The Romans were brilliant architects, mathematicians, writers, and also astronomers, believing their entire existence to be dictated by the Parcae, the Fates.
They were goddesses who spun, measured, and cut the threads of life, dictating their lifespans. The gods of the Roman pantheon governed the natural and human spheres of Roman life: Roman women would ask the goddess of love, Venus, to give them good fortune in their love lives and emperors would pray to Jupiter, the king of the gods, for his approval. Despite its pagan beginnings, Italy was, and still is, a strongly Catholic nation.
Rome eventually fell to the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, Germanic tribes that sacked the capital. The Byzantine Empire became the center of Roman culture from then on, and became known for its persecution of Christians under Emperor Nero. Temples to the Roman gods were converted into churches or cathedrals, and the Roman religion was wiped out.
Following is a photograph of the Vatican City, the center of the Roman Catholic Church, and also a place of pilgrimage for Catholics across the globe. Translate the given sentence into Italian, making correct use of the subjunctive. You formal hope that Alex female comes. Put your things on the table, please. The mother is worried that the children are out too late. My parents fear that my grandparents will die soon. You informal and Vincent desire that the new Prime Minister can make good decisions. It irritates them that they make such disgusting food.
We pray that God helps us. I deny that the stepmother cares about Cinderella. Arianna is angry that she has to go to Italy this summer. Translate the given sentence into Italian, making correct use of the past perfect. When George came home, Lauren had been asleep for two hours. Had you informal played that symphony la sinfonia already? The ballet il balleto had already finished when we female arrived. The couple la coppia had been together insieme for six years. We male had left for Europe in The mother and child had eaten the pasta at 4: David had broken his leg three times when he was twelve.
Her brother had been dead for ten years. This passage utilizes literary Italian. If you have trouble reading this, review the supplement in Capitolo 5. La sua nome era Rosalba. Tutti gli uomini volevano di sposarsi con ella. Rosalba voleva sposarsi con il principe dei suoi sogni, anche se ella avrebbe bisogno di disobbedire sua padre.
Ti chiedo che tu mi sposi! Ma, egli ebbe un piano a plan! Poi, Rosalba e Anatolia vissero per sempre felici e contenti happily ever after.
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Why did the emperor go to the Oracle? What happened to Rosalba as a result? Do you think the answer to the riddle makes sense? Speaking of the Future Everyone constantly wonders about where his or her future will lead them. Just as this piazza in La Piazza Navona has a multitude of works of art representing different ideas, the future is made up of many different possibilities. Learn to talk about the various factors that affect the future. Learn to use the future tense and also the future of probability.
Following are tables with conjugations for the future tense. Irregular Verb Stems Below is a table of all the endings. They are organized in the typical format as other conjugation tables. The list afterward details all the irregular verb stems. These verbs drop the i in the stem before attaching the ending.
This is done to preserve the soft c and g sounds. These verbs add an h to the verb stem before attaching the ending. This keeps the hard c and g sounds. This includes all speculative expressions. This means sentences like: Where could he be? Where could my keys be? Italy, today, is one of the leaders in the use of solar power, utilizing its advantageous global position and sun exposure to produce large amounts of solar power from its many solar PV photovoltaic plants and solar PV parks.
Many of these have been built in South Italy. The incentive regime, however, announced cuts in the energy incentive in , but also expressed interest in wind, geothermal, and tidal energy, and biomass, biogas, landfill gas, and sewage treatment gas. The companies hope to eliminate the need to export energy from reactors abroad through the latter option. The public opposes this for environmental reasons, and also because of the possibility of a meltdown.
Limitations of the national grid include a lack of space to build renewable projects, and also the lack of a simplified authority on the building and operation of the projects. The Italian legislature has been working on pushing the latter law through the bicameral legislature. The alternative energy projects have received some resistance both in the legislature and public.
The northern states are generally wealthier, especially Lombardia, and have more people, which is where most of the funding comes from, as many investors come from the North. Wind farms have also received a large number of investors, causing the alternative energy industry to thrive. This a possible sign of bright economic future for Italy, as if it does achieve its goals in alternative energy, the government and legislature will be able to focus on other important issues, such as domestic violence, discussed earlier in this text.
Translate the given sentence into Italian, making correct use of the future tense. You informal and Michael will leave for England Inghilterra tomorrow, right? Scientists will create a cure for cancer il cancro. We will protest to reduce taxes. The children mixed will never drink wine or beer. Many people will see a famous person at least almeno once. Shopping Something people commonly associate with Italy is shopping, due to the city of Milan being a fashion capital of the world.
However, other items, such as groceries and electronics, are also important in modern Italy. In this chapter you will learn about these very important things. Learn to discuss shopping and clothing. Learn to use the imperfetto congiuntivo, the present participle, another use of ci, and impersonal si expressions. Ci can also be a substitute for a prepositional phrase, which may be explicit or implicit. I want to go there too! Instead of saying alla cinema again, the sentence uses ci as a pronoun for it.
Look at a non-locative example. Stai pensando su Teresa ancora? Impersonal Si Expressions These expressions have no particular subject. Si cerca per i prezzi bassi. They sell necklaces in that store. However, while possible in the present subjunctive albeit more rarely , the imperfect subjunctive can be used in clauses without che. Credevo che lei cantasse una canzione bella. I believed that she sang a beautiful song. He came as if he were a ghost. Almost all the time, instances of come se as if will be followed by the imperfect subjunctive, to suggest a hypothetical condition. Later on, you will learn how to form such sentences with compound tenses.
These are expressions such as Italian-speaking, meat-eating, etc. Studying other languages is interesting. You can drop the final -e in an infinitive in such as case as above, when it precedes a vowel sound. Le industrie importante Two important industries in Italy are tourism and motor vehicles. Italy, for centuries, has been a place of pilgrimage, study of the arts, and also a major historical site.
Its rich present-day culture and that of its past are prominent in many places in Italy, such as the Colosseum in Rome, and the Vatican City. As you may know, Italy is also home to two prestigious vehicle industries: The two are highly prized as luxury vehicles abroad, and are an important source of income for Italy.
Vado al teatro per vedere un spettacolo. I miei genitori sono viaggiati in Cina. Tu e le tue amice hanno mangiato in Lombardia. Tu vivevi in America quando eri bambino. Maria, Lucia, ed io parteciperemo en il balleto al teatro. Gli studenti partivano per Sudamerica. Come up with some different advertisements for services using impersonal si expressions. Si vendono frutti e verdure qui. Fruit and vegetables are sold here. Translate the given sentence into Italian, making correct use of the imperfect subjunctive.
My mother was worried that we ate too much. People in felt that the war la guerra was too violent violento. In the letter, I believed that my parents refused to let me go to Spain because they were angry. My son hated that his wife wanted to go to Turkey Turchia instead invece of going to Greece Grecia. The World The state of the world has always been a source of concern for many people. Ever since the industrial revolutions that took place in many countries in the 20th century and late 21st century, people have had varying thoughts about the changes wrought on the natural world.
Learn to discuss the consequences of man-made developments and what has been affected in nature as a result. Learn about the issue of unemployment in Italy, and how it might affect Italy. Learn all the remaining tenses. By the time you turn twenty-three, you will have finished your studies. Nel passato, lui aveva preparato cannoli per la sua familia. In the past, he had made cannoli for his family. To make the subjunctive form of this tense, simply put the conjugation of avere or essere in the imperfect subjunctive. This is no longer used in spoken language, and the trapassato prossimo has replaced it, and now is only used in literary contexts.
Il Condizionale The Conditional This tense expresses the concept of would. I would take some pasta, if there were any. The conjugations are shown in the following table. Irregular verbs in the conditional use the future verb stems. Andrei alla festa, se io avessi tempo. I would come to the party, if I had time. As you can probably tell, the conditional is used frequently in conjunction with the imperfect subjunctive.
You can also use the conditional to make polite requests. Vorrei un bicchiere di vino. I would like a glass of wine. Potrebbe Lei passarmi il sale? Could you pass me the salt? Se fossi andato alla festa, ti avrei unito! Verbs That Change Meaning With Mood or Tense Some verbs change meaning, even slightly, in accordance with the tense they are conjugated in. The only changes that will be listed here are those that might be unexpected. Sono potuto venire allo spettacolo. Ho voluto fare la spesa. I decided to go shopping. Vorrei un bicchiere di vino rosso. I would like a bottle of red wine.
Io devo tornare a casa. I must return home. Ti devo trenta dollari. I owe you thirty dollars. Dovrei fare le mie faccende, ma non voglio. Will you be firm in what you intend? Banquo, eternity opens its realm to you. La luce langue, il faro spegnesi Ch'eterno corre per gli ampi cieli! Compiersi debbe l'opra fatale. O scettro, alfin sei mio! Ogni mortal desio Tace e s'acqueta in te. The light is fading, the beacon that eternally crosses the wide sky has gone out.
O longed-for night, throw a veil over the guilty murderous hand. It must be so! The fatal deed must be done. Power means nothing to the dead; for them a requiem and eternity. Oh, desire of the throne! Oh, sceptre, at last you are mine! Every living desire is quieted and calmed in you. The man who was prophesied king will soon fall lifeless. In the distance is Macbeth's castle. Two groups of assassins enter from several directions.
Chi v'impose unirvi a noi? Ed a che far? Rimanete, or bene sta. Sparve il sol, la notte or regni Scellerata, - insanguinata.
Felici per sempre
Cieca notte, affretta e spegni Ogni lume in terra e in ciel. Who commanded you to join us? We are to slaughter Banquo. He will come here with his son. The sun has disappeared, now let night reign, wicked and bloodstained. Blind night, hurry to extinguish all light on earth and in heaven. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Peter's story 1 - ita. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Education. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Browse by Genre Available eBooks Masculine or feminine nouns with singular ending in -a Singular -a m.
Plural -i m. Plural -e f. The singular ending -a is used whether they are male or female, but the plural form is different according to the 'natural' gender. A large number of these nouns end in -ista English '-ist' indicating an ideology socialista, marxista , profession chitarrista, dentista or sport ciclista, tennista.
Masculine nouns with singular ending in -a Singular -a m. See also masculine nouns ending in -ca, -ga above. See 1. Masculine nouns with singular in -o, feminine plural in -a A number of masculine nouns become feminine in the plural, with an irregular ending in -a: Singular m. Plural f. Plural in -i m. Plural in -a f. For example, le dita are the fingers of your hand, when talked about 'collectively' ho le dita gelate 'my fingers are frozen' while i diti are the fingers considered 'individually or separately' ho due diti rotti T have two broken fingers'.
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Le mura are the collective walls of a city Lucca e una citta circondata da mura romane 'Lucca is a city surrounded by Roman walls' , while i muri refer to all other kinds of walls. Le ossa is the plural form normally used when talking about the skeletal system mi fanno male le ossa 'my bones ache' while the masculine plural gli ossi is used when talking about separate bones, e. Invariable nouns Invariable nouns have the same form in the plural as in the singular. These include the following. There are two main types of article in Italian, as there are in English: the indefinite article articolo indeterminativo and the definite article articolo determinativo.
They distinguish the generic from the specific, the known from the unknown see also 9. There is a dog in the garden, unknown dog In giardino c'e il cane. There is the dog in the garden, our dog or a dog we know about In Italian the form of the article has to agree with the gender and number of the noun it is attached to, but also according to the initial letter of the word immedi- ately following it, whether noun or adjective.
This applies also a third type of article, the partitive article. A partitive article can also be used in the singular, indicating a quantity of uncount- able things, people or abstract concepts: Vorrei del pane. Ho visto della gente che correva. C'e ancora della speranza. I'd like some bread. I saw some people running. There is still some hope. Note: See also In the plural, they take the article le, which is never abbreviated.
Give me the toothpicks. Give me some toothpicks. Known or unknown, specified or unspecified a The definite article is used to specify known people or things Flavia vuole portare I'amico alia festa. Flavia wants to take her friend to the party, particular friend or boyfriend Vorrei la camera che abbiamo avuto l'anno scorso. I would like the room we had last year, specific room 12 The article b The indefinite article is used, as in English, for an unknown or unspecified indi- vidual or thing: Flavia vuole portare un amico alia festa.
Flavia wants to take a friend to the party, an unspecified friend Vorrei una camera per stasera, per favore. The dolphin is a mammal. I like American films. Note how English only uses the definite article 'the' in the singular 'the dolphin'. C'e un delfino! There is a dolphin! Ho visto un bel film americano alia televisione. I've seen a nice American film on television.
These are only general guidelines. In many cases the use or omission of the articles depends on different linguistic habits. Some particular uses of the definite article In Italian we always use the definite article with the proper names of geographical features such as mountains, rivers, etc. I love Italy. II Brasile e campione del mondo.
Brazil is world champion. I live in Italy. Andiamo in Spagna. We go to Spain. One lives better in southern Italy. But we do sometimes use it to refer to masculine or plural countries: Vivo negli Stati Uniti. I live in the USA. For the forms of the definite article with prepositions in, a, etc.
When speaking of somebody's profession we use the article with fare: Faccio l'ingegnere. I am an engineer, but omit it with essere note how English usage differs : Sono ingegnere. I am an engineer. See also 8. An adjective is a word that qualifies the meaning of a noun by adding some spec- ification or description to it. There are many different categories of adjective including demonstrative questo, quello , interrogative quale , possessive mio, tuo , indefinite alcuni, qualche and negative nessun. But in this chapter we only cover the use of aggettivi qual- ificativi: descriptive adjectives that describe qualities physical or otherwise of person or thing, and classifying adjectives, such as nationality, that describe the category or classification that the person or thing belongs to see also Chapter The other types of adjectives will be shown in Chapter 3, together with the corresponding pronouns.
The adjective Common adjective patterns Almost all descriptive adjectives follow the same basic patterns as the nouns see 1. In the second group, the ending is the same for both masculine and feminine: Class 1 Class 2 Singular Plural Singular Plural Masculine piccolo piccoli grande grandi m. Feminine piccola piccole grande grandi m. The gender and number of the adjective must agree with the noun to which it refers see 1. Adjectives with singular -a for both masculine and feminine have masculine plural in -i and feminine plural in -e. Many of these have endings such as -ista, -asta, -ita, -ida, -ota for nouns with similar endings, see 1.
This is the usual non-emphatic position occupied by the adjective, when it expresses a basic, intrinsic characteristic of the noun: Ho visto un film interessante Abbiamo visitato una citta storica I saw an interesting film We visited an historic city Adjectives of shape, colour and nationality almost always come after the noun. Note that adjectives of nationality never have a capital letter in Italian: una tavola rotonda una maglia bianca uno studente francese a round table a white sweater a French student Adjectives qualified, for example, by an adverb or a prepositional phrase, also come after: una persona enormemente simpatica un viaggio pieno di problemi As do participles used as adjectives: le mele cotte a really nice person a journey full of problems cooked apples 16 The adjective 1.
Although Italian descriptive adjectives, particularly the most common e. Give me the small screwdriver, not the big one Sul tavolo c'era un piccolo cacciavite. There was a small screwdriver on the table, description of screwdriver Sandra e una ragazza bella. Sandra is a beautiful girl, not merely nice Sandra e una bella ragazza.
Sandra is a really beautiful girl. Ho comprato una macchina nuova. I bought a new car. Paola put on a new dress, another, a different one Some adjectives have a completely different meaning from their common one when their position is changed, expressing their literal meaning when used after, but a quite different, often figurative, meaning when used before: un film bello a nice film un bel problema a pretty difficult problem Preferisco avere regole certe I prefer to have reliable rules Non capisco certe regole I don't understand certain some rules un ufficiale alto a tall officer un alto ufficiale a high-ranking officer un uomo grande a big man e.
Pavarotti un grande uomo a great man e. Napoleon Ci sono molti studenti poveri There are many poor students Poveri studenti! L'esame sara duro! Poor students! The exam will be hard! Note that bello, when positioned before the noun see example above, un bel prob- lema changes its endings in the same way as the definite article il, la, lo, etc.
Felici per sempre (Bridgertons, #) by Julia Quinn
The adjective buono, on the other hand, follows the pattern of the indefinite article un, una, un', uno see 1. La mia macchina e veloce come la tua. My car is as fast as yours. La mia macchina e piii veloce della tua. My car is faster than yours. La mia macchina e meno veloce della tua. My car is less fast than yours. As a reinforcement, we can also use the words tanto, altrettanto or cosi before the first element: II mio nuovo ufficio e comodo quanto quello di prima. My new office is as comfortable as the one I had before. La mia collega e tanto carina quanto efficiente.
My colleague is as pretty as she is efficient. Qui le melanzane non sono care come in Inghilterra. Here aubergines are not as dear as in England. Sandro is better than Angelo at bridge. E stato meno facile di quanto pensassi. It was less easy than I expected. E piii facile criticare che risolvere i problemi. It's easier to criticise than to solve problems. Sara e piii carina che intelligente. Sara is prettier than she is intelligent.
Similarly, minore can mean 'smaller' or 'younger', but can also mean 'less, the lesser' when referring to an abstract quality: Ho due sorelle. La maggiore si chiama Diana. I have two sisters. The elder is called Diana. Noi abbiamo una maggiore responsabilita di voi. We have a greater responsibility than you. II mio fratello minore frequenta la scuola elementare.
My little younger brother goes to elementary school. Lui lavora con minore impegno da quando si e sposato. He works with less commitment since he got married. Relative superlatives To refer to something or somebody as having 'the most' of a certain quality, in rela- tion to other individuals, we use il piu together with the relevant adjective. This is called the relative superlative: Silvia e la piu brava studentessa della nostra classe.
Silvia is the best student in our class. Pavarotti e il tenore italiano piu famoso del mondo. Pavarotti is the most famous Italian tenor in the world. II Po e il piii lungo iiume italiano. The Po is the longest Italian river. In my opinion, the greatest problem in our time is that of drugs. Absolute superlatives Absolute superlatives indicate the greatest possible degree of a quality, but without any comparison being made.
Nouns, adjectives and articles used together in a noun group must agree in number and gender. For example, if we use a feminine singular noun such as borsa 'bag', we have to use a feminine singular article la and adjective rossa: La borsa rossa The red bag If we use a masculine plural noun such as sandali 'sandals', we have to use a mascu- line plural article i and adjective rossi: I sandali rossi The red sandals The English articles and adjectives are identical in both examples 'the red.
On the table there is a round dish. I met two Italian girls. Noun and adjective of different patterns It is more difficult to remember how to make the agreement when the noun and adjective belong to different patterns and therefore have different endings: Sul tavolo c'e un piatto grande. There is a large dish on the table. I met two English girls.
II programma era noioso. The programme was boring. La radio era rotta.
The radio was broken. More than one noun same gender If an adjective refers to more than one noun of the same gender, it will be plural and have the same gender as the nouns: Ho comprato un libro e un vocabolario tedeschi. I bought a German book and German dictionary. Ho comprato una grammatica e un'agenda tedesche. I bought a German grammar and a German diary. More than one noun different genders If the two nouns are of different genders then the adjective is generally masculine plural: Ho comprato un vocabolario e una grammatica tedeschi.
I bought a German dictionary and a German grammar. However if the second of the two nouns - the one nearest to the adjective - is femi- nine plural, the adjective may sometimes agree with it: Ho comprato un vocabolario e due grammatiche tedesche. I bought a German dictionary and two German grammars.
Italian has a complex system of different verb forms. In the first section of this chapter we shall intro- duce the general features of Italian verbs, both regular and irregular, with a brief explanation of basic grammatical terminology, which will help you to understand these features. In the second section, the different verb forms are illustrated in table form for the regular and the most common irregular verbs and also for the passive forms of the four regular verb types. Finally, in the third section, we look at the different verb moods and tenses individually with brief explanations on their use.
Part B of the book illustrates usage more fully. Grammatical subject Usually the subject of a verb is the 'agent' or 'doer' of an action, the 'protagonist' of an event: Noi partiamo per l'America. We leave for America. Franco e Teresa partono per l'America. Franco and Teresa leave for America. Sometimes we talk of facts rather than actions. Here the 'subject' of the verb is not 'doing' anything, but is the theme or main topic expressed by the verb: Giulia e bionda.
Giulia is blonde. Questo film dura due ore. This film lasts two hours. However the grammatical subject of the verb may be different from the real subject or agent of the action. This is the case with passive constructions see Persons of the verb The different forms of the verb, determined by its grammatical subject, are called the persons this is a purely grammatical term, not necessarily referring to human beings : 2.
The different endings immediately identify the 'person' - the subject of the action - unlike in English where only the third person singular has a distinctive ending T eat, you eat, he eats'. How old are you? Ho trent'anni. I am thirty. Using a subject pronoun to refer to the third person is often unnecessary where the person or thing has already been mentioned: Quanti anni ha Maria?
How old is Maria? Ha venticinque anni. She is twenty-five. Verb conjugations The fact that Italian verbs have a pattern of six distinct verb endings in each of the tenses creates a large number of different forms of the same verb almost a hundred! Fortunately, most verbs follow common patterns of change known as conjugations. Each verb has an invariable part the 'stem' , which carries its meaning, and an inflected part the 'ending' which identifies the person, the tense, the mood, and other features.
The regular conjugation patterns are shown in the verb tables below 2. Traditionally we distinguish three conjugations defined by the form that the verb takes in the infinitive the infinitive is the form used in dictionary entries : 1st conjugation ending in -are as parl-are 'to speak' 2nd conjugation ending in -ere as cred-ere 'to believe' 3rd conjugation ending in -ire as dorm-ire 'to sleep' The verbs of the 3rd conjugation ending in -ire follow two distinct patterns, the second of which, with endings in -isco, as in fin-ire Ifm-isco 'to finish', is the most frequent.
Both patterns, however, are considered as belonging to the same conju- gation, because of the -ire ending of the infinitive. Moods and tenses Moods The different forms and uses of Italian verbs are traditionally grouped in seven moods. These convey the different characteristics of the actions or facts that the speaker or writer wants to communicate: certainty or doubt, politeness or straightforwardness, command, etc.
The ways in which moods are used to express distinct communicative functions and mean- ings are illustrated in Part B. Tenses The word tense denotes the different verb forms that indicate the relationship between the action or event referred to and the time of speaking or writing or other refer- ence point in time. There is a range of different tenses for each mood of verbs except the imperative. In Italian, different tenses are sometimes used to distinguish features of verbs other than time relationships.
For example, perfect and imperfect tenses can express the aspect of the action see Chapter 13 , while different subjunctive and conditional tenses can express different degrees of doubt, possibility, politeness, etc. Simple and compound tenses Many tenses of Italian verbs are formed using the past participle of the main verb along with either avere or essere as the auxiliary verb.
These are called compound tenses. One major area of difficulty for students of Italian is knowing which verbs use avere in compound tenses and which use essere. In order to be able to do this, it is useful to understand the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs see 2.
All passive forms of verbs see 2. There may be a direct object as in: Lucia scrive una lettera. Cerchiamo una casa. Lucia writes a letter. We look for a house. Here the action of the verb can be completed by answering the question che cosa? The direct object of the verb is the noun that can answer this question without the use of a preposition in this case una lettera and una casa : Che cosa scrive Lucia? Lucia scrive una lettera. Che cosa cerchiamo? What is Lucia writing? Lucia is writing a letter.
What are we looking for? We're looking for a house. The train to Naples left at 6. Because it determines their different uses, especially in the compound tenses, knowing whether verbs are transitive or intransitive is very important. Check by either looking in a dictionary or seeing whether you can ask and answer the question che cosa?
In dictionaries all verb entries carry the following indications: v. Problems arise also from the fact that many English verbs used transitively and intransitively have an Italian counterpart that can only be used intransitively. Below we show some examples of English phrases that cannot be translated directly into Italian, since the verbs camminare, volare, guidare and viaggiare are not gener- ally used transitively: I'm going to walk the dog. I'm Sharon. Fly me! Can you drive me home? Travel the world with Airmiles! Verbs that can be used both transitively and intransitively Some verbs can be used both transitively with a direct object and intransitively without a direct object , for example aumentare, cambiare, cominciare, crescere, diminuire, finire and passare.
In the first two examples that follow, the subjects of these actions - beginning and finishing - are people and the verbs have direct objects 'the lesson', 'the holidays'. II professore comincia la lezione alle The teacher begins the lesson at Finiamo le vacanze in agosto.
We finish our holidays in August. In the next two examples below , the same verbs this time with 'the lesson' and 'the holidays' as subject cannot have a direct object: Lucia ha scritto una lettera. Abbiamo cercato una casa. Lucia wrote a letter. We looked for a house. Andiamo in ufficio alle 9. II treno per Napoli parte alle 6. Siamo andate in ufficio alle 9. We go to the office at 9. The train to Naples leaves at 6. We went to the office at 9. La lezione comincia alle The lesson begins at The holidays finish in August.
In simple tenses, the forms of the verbs are identical, whether transitive or intran- sitive. But the compound tenses, such as the past, vary according to whether they are used transitively or intransitively: II professore ha cominciato la lezione. The teacher began the lesson. La lezione e cominciata alle The lesson began at Abbiamo finito le vacanze in agosto. We finished the holidays in August. Le vacanze sono finite in agosto. The holidays finished in August. When used transitively, verbs such as correre 'to run', saltare 'to jump', vivere to live' take avere: Hanno corso un grosso rischio.
They ran a great risk. Oggi ho saltato il pranzo. Today I skipped lunch. Ho vissuto una vita d'inferno. I have lived a life of hell. I lived in London for 10 years. Giuliana ran home. The children jumped down from the bed. Verbs like these are marked in dictionaries as v. Verbs using the auxiliary avere even when used intransitively Generally Italian transitive verbs use the auxiliary avere, while intransitive verbs use the auxiliary essere in the compound tenses.
However, there are quite a few verbs that use the auxiliary avere even when used intransitively. Here are the most common: camminare dormire giocare passeggiare to walk to sleep to play to walk piangere riposare viaggiare to cry to rest to travel Ho camminato per due ore. I walked for two hours. General features of verbs Come hai dormito? How did you sleep? Avete giocato a carte? Did you play cards?
Voice: active, passive, reflexive 21 Introduction 'Voice' describes the relationship of the verb action with its subject and object. The different voices or relationships are: a Active voice Normally see 2. Gianni watches Luisa. II meccanico ripara la macchina. The mechanic repairs the car.
Luisa is watched by Gianni. La macchina e riparata dal meccanico. The car is repaired by the mechanic. In the second example, the agent of the action is clearly the mechanic the one who repairs the car , but the grammatical subject of the passive verb is the car. Gianni looks at himself in the mirror. There are other verb forms that are not strictly speaking reflexive but are similar in form.
The passive form The passive of Italian verbs is formed by the use of the past participle and the auxil- iary essere, using the same tense as the corresponding active form. The passive conjugation of verbs is shown in the verb tables in 2. The passive can also be formed using venire or andare as auxiliary instead of essere see Only transitive verbs can have a passive form see 2.
Passive sentences sentences based on a passive verb are used when we want to focus on the action itself or the object of an action, rather than on the agent of an action. For more examples on the use of the passive, see VERBS The reflexive and pronominal form Reflexive verb forms Reflexive verbs are active verb forms accompanied by a reflexive pronoun see 3. Look at these two examples: II Sig. Franchi sta lavando la macchina. Mr Franchi is washing the car.
II Sig. Franchi si sta lavando. Mr Franchi is washing himself. In the first example above, the direct object of the action of washing is the car. It is separate from the person who is doing it the subject of the action. In the second example, the subject and the object of the action are the same person II Sig. This is the reflexive form, in which the reflexive pronoun refers to the person carrying out the action, but at the same time is also the object of it.
The position of the reflexive pronoun is the same as that of all other unstressed personal pronouns see 3. Please, have a seat make yourself comfortable. In genere i giovani italiani si vestono alia moda. In general young people in Italy dress fashionably. Sono le 9. Dovete prepararvi ad uscire. It's 9. You must prepare yourselves to go out. Preparari ad uscire! Get yourself ready to go out! In the compound tenses, reflexive verbs are conjugated with the verb essere, even though the verbs are transitive cf. The past participle has to agree with the subject: Stamattina i bambini si sono alzati alle 6.
This morning the children got themselves up at 6. Mi sono vestita con calma. I got dressed slowly. Pronominal verb forms Pronominal verb forms are verb forms which use the reflexive pronoun. In Italian they are used much more frequently than in English because we can use them not only in a true reflexive pattern, but also in many other ways. In true reflexives see above , the subject and object of the verb are one and the same.
Although this is not the case with pronominal verb forms, they still embody the concept of 'reci- procal' or 'reflexive' action an action relating or reflecting back to the subject. The different uses of the pronominal verb form will become clear from the examples below. Note the use of the auxiliary essere in the compound tenses: Giulio si lava le mani. Giulio washes his hands. Mi metto la giacca.
I put on my jacket. Stamattina non mi sono fatto la barba. This morning I didn't shave myself. In the examples above, the actions are not truly reflexive, since the subjects and the objects of the actions are not exactly identical: Giulio. In the last example, the participle can also agree with the object: Stamattina non mi sono fatta la barba.
The reflexive pronoun can also be omitted in which case the construction no longer takes essere in the compound tenses: Giulio lava le mani. Metto la giacca. Non ho fatto la barba. Ci vediamo domani. See you tomorrow. Mario e Nicoletta si sposano domani. Mario and Nicoletta are getting married tomorrow.
Dove vi siete conosciuti tu e Maria? Where did you and Maria meet each other? Ci siamo incontrati in Spagna. We met each other in Spain. Note how in the examples above the reflexive pronoun marks an event or action taking place within the subject; the two people are at the same time the subject and the object of a reciprocal action. The same actions can be expressed by the active form, in which case one person is the subject and the other is the object: Domani Mario sposa Nicoletta. Tomorrow Mario will marry Nicoletta.
Dove tu hai conosciuto Maria? Where did you meet Maria? Rossi in Spagna. I met Dr Rossi in Spain. Tonight we'll watch a nice film. Ho fame! Voglio mangiarmi una pizza! I'm hungry!