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Economists call it a tax on the poor, because the least well-off among us spend a far bigger share of their incomes on it.

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Agradable de leer. Joseph rated it really liked it Jul 17, Ricardo Vladimiro rated it really liked it Jan 06, Manolo rated it liked it Oct 28, Between and , four treaties of confederal union were signed with Peru, Chile, Mexico, and Central America. According to its Art.

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To strengthen the ties that in the future must unite both States and to overcome any difficulty that may arise and disrupt their good correspondence and harmony, an assembly composed of two plenipotentiaries of each party will be formed on the same terms and with the same formalities in accordance with the usages established for the appointment of ministers of the same class near the governments of foreign nations REZA, , p. The amphictyonic model is endorsed by Art. Comparing its wording with the characteristics of the Greek amphictyony described in the next sections of this paper , five common elements stand out:.

The differential elements are no less, although their importance lies in the fact that they respond to American characteristics and needs: the granting of trade preferences, the abolition of slavery, the independence of Cuba and Puerto Rico, the design of the rights of foreign consuls, the rejection of the European proposal to buy diplomatic recognition, 6 the organization of the confederate army, the functioning of the assembly, and others.

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These elements are described by military, confederal, and commercial codes that will last beyond the cancellation of the Bolivarian initiative in , while serving as guides to subsequent confederal initiatives in , , and A Congress, therefore, next to the Isthmus of Panama, sole arbitrator of peace and war across the Colombian continent, would not only contain the ambition of the Principino of Brazil and the claims of the United States but that of all Europe [ The misfortunes of the old world should give these lessons to the new one, where they are only practicable due to the homogeneity of language, education, customs, religion, and laws MIER, , p.

The Federalist is an interesting source due to its criticism of the laxity of the confederal regime, favoring a more centralist positions. Hamilton, Madison and Jay , p. As we all know, the best references on the amphictyonic leagues are the works by Polybius, Thucydides, Herodotus, Aeschines, Aristophanes, Strabo and Demosthenes.

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The best kind of Orator by Cicero , p. That said, Polybius authored the best historical account on the amphictyonic league: in 14 of the 39 books that compose his Histories, he reviews the evolution of the Hellenic confederations, particularly the Achaean League based in Corinth. Rui Bamba and published in three volumes in Madrid in , and a French version in six volumes, first edited by Gandouin in and then by Merkus in , were available. It was published in by Gabriel de Mably, the same person who later advised Rousseau on the suitability of synthesizing the works of Saint-Pierre.

In this book , p. If Bolivar payed attention to that paragraph, which contains the main basis for the Amphictyonic model, then he may have seen reflected in it his desire to reconcile the sovereign zeal of the Hispanic American colonial centers with the aim of protecting them through the union of their army and foreign policies.

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The Rescript puts in the mouth of an imaginary Eastern dignitary a suggestive objection to the eurocentrism of the Project:. We have attentively read the pamphlet of our beloved Jean-Jacques, citizen of Geneva, which Jean-Jacques has written the abstract of a Plan of Perpetual Peace by the bonze Saint-Pierre, which bonze Saint-Pierre had abstracted it from a clerk of the mandarin marquis de Rosny, Duke de Sully, an excellent economist, who had abstracted it from the depth of his brain We have been keenly afflicted to see that in the said abstract edited by our beloved Jean-Jacques, where are set out the easy means for giving Europe a perpetual peace, the remainder of the Universe - which must always be in view in all these pamphlets - has been forgotten.

We knew that the monarchy of France, which is the foremost of monarchies; the anarchy of Germany, which is the foremost of anarchies; Spain, England, Poland, Sweden, which are, according to their historians, each in its kind, the foremost power of the universe, are all required to accede to the treaty of Jean-Jacques. We have been edified to see that our dear cousin the empress for all Russia was similarly required to furnish her contingent.

But great was our imperial surprise when we searched in vain for our name in the list. We judged that, being such a near neighbor of our dear cousin, we should have been named along with her; that the Great Turk neighbor of Hungary and of Naples, the king of Persia, similarly have the same rights, and that it would be doing a flagrant injustice to Japan to forget it in the general confederation ROUSSEAU, , p.

This work is a reaction to the summary of the Projet published by Rousseau in , which he knows all too well: a copy of it was found in his private library at Ferney, now located in the National Library of Russia in St.

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Instead of a single work on the Projet, Rousseau writes first the summary Extrait in which he expresses Saint Pierre's ideas as if the abbot himself had defended them, and then a critical piece Jugement , where he displays an opposite point of view. Although he refrains from adjectivizing the work of chimeric, it is not far from doing so:.


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  • Thus, although the project was very wise, the means of executing it were influenced by the simplicity of the author. He thought that it was only necessary to assemble a congress, to propose its articles, to sign them, and everything was done. Let us agree that in all the projects of this honest man he saw the effect of things well enough when they were established, but he judged as a child the means of establishing them ROUSSEAU, , p.

    No doubt perpetual peace is by now an absurd project. But give us a Henri IV and a Sully [the proponent of the first plan of European Confederation], perpetual peace will become a reasonable project: or rather, let us admire a beautiful plan, but let us console ourselves for its non-realization, because this can be done only by violent and formidable resources ROUSSEAU, , p.