It was present in four official platforms: a Facebook page, a Twitter account, an Instagram profile and a video blog avail- able on YouTube. This way it was very interesting to realize that the chosen strategy has also contributed for the transmedia universe promoted by RTVE, which allowed the visualization of the weekly episodes and the search of content in different web platforms, improving the comprehension of the series, although it can be consumed autonomously.
Contrarily to what happened in the United States, in Mexico, in , there was no special interest to keep implementing a trans- media strategy; and when it actually happened Televisa it did not work with the audience, in opposition to what occurred in with series Club de Cuervos, which registered high popularity rates, with a great number of followers on social media and a lot of audience participation. This way, Club de Cuervos was considered the televi- sion product with the greatest transmedia game in Mexico, taking into consideration that the public is still not participating as creator of content, like in the cases of Brazil, Spain and the United States.
The new problem Mexican broad- casters have to face are the so-called influencers, who, through their YouTube channels, are able to reproduce television content, getting millions of views, particularly from a younger generation, getting this age group further and further away from TV. Just as it has been referred in previous yearbooks, the precari- ousness and shyness with which Peruvian broadcasters deal with the appropriation of transmedia narratives and the use of internet platforms to conquer a new public and diversify the consumption of local productions is still a reality in Both have developed propositions to transcend the television arena and enjoy the possibilities that the internet has to offer and reaching a greater audience.
This was announced as the first fiction produced in Peru, whose pre- miere would happen on the internet and not on television. This deci- sion provoked a privileged online access for that same purpose and, while internet audiences were good for the first episodes, the public got confused with the development of the story, as it happened si- multaneously on television and online, which ended up provoking a certain discontentment on part of the viewers.
This was, then, a counter-productive construction of a transmedia culture, for what was expected from the internet was to bring something complemen- tary in terms of televised narrative, and not the same content. Just like it happened in previous years, fan interaction keeps hap- pening only in the form of commentaries left on digital platforms. This story was told on sev- eral platforms, with daily updates on Instagram, with photos, videos and other information, and it was able to captivate a younger audi- ence and explore the narrative on several digital platforms.
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Uruguay kept the same analysis strategy from the previous year, with the application of the formula created by them to count the level of average engagement of fans in posts made by the pro- duction in an official page of the fictional product. The analysis revealed that the content produced does not appeal to user participation, but it tries to spread information throughout the platforms. Transmedia reception of the Obitel countries Level of trans- Coun- Transmedia strat- Type of fan transme- Fiction media imple- try egy dia participation mentation Argen- Fanny, La Oficial website Pictures 1.
These should not be only mere echoes of television; they have to be explored taking into consideration a public that is getting closer to present day technology and less identified with the traditional TV consumption model. However, the results indicate that the majority of the countries is still sharing an experimental attitude towards transmedia, qualified with 1. This interac- tion stems from the nature of each one of the referred social media networks, which does not allow for a greater diversity in terms of interaction.
Contrarily to this, about half of the Obitel countries, like Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile and Mexico, were already able to create different kinds of interaction with their audience, due to applications, videoblogs or other strategies that, in order to get a higher involvement with fans, allow the creation of content. It is also important to highlight the choice of some transmedia stories, like in the cases of Colombia and Venezuela, whose fiction stands out for mixing with reality.
This narrative option has been more present in formats like series and documentaries, giving more chances for participation, once the relation of proximity with the themes triggers a higher will to be a part of the story. When comparing with previous years, we can see that social networks, the main medium where interaction takes place between users, have suffered two important additions in the last year: Ins- tagram and YouTube. They caused the producers to increase their platforms of content diffusion, but they are also places to captivate new audiences, particularly YouTube, which is the most popular so- cial network among the younger generation.
From the obtained data, it is possible to say that most interac- tions between audiences and producers are made through the latter and not by fans. User participation is still very limited, not only by the constrains in terms of digital platforms, but also by all the pos- sibilities that are left out by content producers who do not search or encourage for interaction, and only crave a limited reaction to know how their public behaves and how their products are received.
The results show that the broadcasters are not yet available to give up full control over the creative process; however, results show that the stories that are more interactive and allow a larger narrative openness are the ones that get more participation and captivate higher audiences. Notwithstanding, a parallel tendency could be observed for the decrease of serialized content, particularly by the hand of the public television services Argentina and Portugal , but also in Colombia, in the United States, with the consolida- tion of the superseries, and in Spain, with the increase of the de- mand of content resulting from the penetration of VoD platforms.
This path of appropriation of structural, technical and aesthetic re- sources, which is typical of the North American series of global penetration and success, made Chile, contrary to Argentina, break the typical melodramatic nature on the construction of telenovelas and introduce characteristics of the American series and superser- ies, just like in Colombia, Spain, Portugal and Brazil, particularly through cinematic visual effects, producing genres like thriller and crime stories. Still in relation to the genres, it was interesting to see that comedy was a strong presence in domestic content in Brazil, Portugal and Colombia, but it was absent from the Argentinean titles.
Social themes, based on socio-educational premises close to the realities of the receptors, were also relevant, mainly in prod- ucts coming from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Uruguay and Venezuela. They emphasized problems like gender roles the role of women in society, empowering, domestic violence, transgender , as well as logics of violence and crime. Theme of the year: Ibero-American TV fiction on video on de- mand platforms The level of penetration of video on demand in the different countries shows variations; however, we can say that the new mo- dalities of television viewing are beginning to take root, especially among the younger generations, even if at different speeds, contrib- uting to a decrease of audiences on the free-to-air channels.
Bra- zil is one of the countries that produces the highest number of web content, while Venezuela is the country that is the furthest behind in terms of development of its platforms — the precarious economic situation set back the proliferation of international giants, like Hulu and Netflix, and the local platforms are scarce and do not produce their own content. Taking into account what was exposed here, and as mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, two groups of countries were formed according to their digital development. The new screens are living in parallel with the traditional tiny screen, and, although an environment of competition is getting stronger, the telenovelas and domestic productions of linear broad- cast still have the power to aggregate due to their ludic-affective function Fuenzalida, and their capacity to narrate a nation, giving themes, rituals and motivating audience participation Lopes, , In the Obitel countries, we can also observe incongru- ence in the way to approach the online: it is either seen as an exten- sion of television, or an autonomous space for the exploration of new formats, genres, themes and production companies.
References Fuenzalida, V. Lopes, M. Rio de Janeiro: Editorial Globo Universidade. Kirchheimer3, Ezequiel A. Rivero4 1. Although they were produced and exhibited in a number similar to and the total hours increased, the audience did not accom- pany the titles. One of the reasons is that the political debate remains very strong in the media agenda, both because it is an election year and because of the information related to the cases of political cor- ruption. The 1 Obitel Argentina team thanks Kantar Ibope Media, because, without the information provided by them, it would not be possible to carry out the analyses presented here, as well as the collaboration of Leonardo Murolo in preparing the theme of the year about iction on video on demand platforms in Argentina.
Open TV in Argentina The open television system in Argentina is made up of five networks with national coverage. The other four networks have private commercial man- agement. Chart 1.
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El Trece and Telefe cover all the provinc- es through direct ownership or by association with the main local stations. The five national networks broadcast their programming through cable television, mostly privately managed, although there is also an extensive network of pay TV cooperatives in the coun- tryside. Telefe became property of US company Viacom Inc. It owns newspapers, open channels, cable television networks nationwide, a digital TV company, internet service providers, a mobile phone company, etc.
It is also co-owner of a news agency and the only newsprint factory, in addition to a significant number of companies outside the mass media. Graph 1. Audience and share per broadcaster There is a slight increase in the informative genre due to the coverage of the electoral activity of the mid-term legislative elections. Audience trends over the year In general, all air channels lost audience in and the open TV decreased in its viewing.
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This happens in parallel to a constant increase in the participation of cable signals, which as a whole ex- ceed the open ones since El Nueve, thanks to the transmission of a large number of long fictions from Ibero-America and some journalistic entertainment programs, achieves a lower but stable rat- ing that stays between two and three points throughout the year. Of this total, This last data in particular con- trasted with the behavior of private advertising that grows on the internet.
Thus, analyzed by Espada and Marino , the state be- comes a key agent in the survival of some traditional media whose audiences fall, but not so the financing. Merchandising and social merchandising In there are no cases of products or cultural goods derived from television fiction. Among the most viewed series, two address social issues: La Fragilidad de los Cuerpos El Trece takes suicide as the starting point of its narration, while Un Gallo para Esculapio Telefe shows with cruelty the violence between rival bands on im- poverished stages of the Buenosairean conurbano.
To these we can add Cartoneros El Nueve , which is set in the social and economic crisis of The state channel also made the local adaptation of Spanish telenovela 7 Data from Magna Global annual report, retrieved by specialized portal Total Media. Publicidad oicial concentrada y en aumento. Revista Fibra. Communication policies As of December , and with the argument of adapting the regulations in force to technological progress and digital conver- gence, the government modified central aspects of the laws of Au- diovisual Communication Services At the same time, the political authority of the sector under the executive power was concentrated, for which the institutional architecture of pre-existing regulation and control was completely dynamited, limiting or eliminating the participation of civil society and a large group of interested parties.
This intervention, carried out mainly by way of presidential de- crees, some of necessity and urgency, was presented as a transitory instance that would lead to the elaboration of a new bill. However, the commission created for these purposes has not submitted any proposal for new regulation after receiving numerous extensions since its creation, in April In this context, during the modifications introduced in recent years became consolidated and permanent.
At the end of , Decree allows telephone companies to provide pay TV services as of January ; it also protects op- erators of new generation networks for 15 years and raises barriers against the entry of new competitors. If it happens, this merger will be the largest act of concentration in the history of communications in the country and it would lead to the largest telecommunications group in Argentina, gaining significant or dominant market power in several urban centers.
Regarding open digital television TDA , the government dismantled its content area and paralyzed the expansion of the physical transmission infrastruc- ture. In two years, it inaugurated just six towers, putting in doubt the deadlines of the analogical blackout, originally planned for ICT trends According to official figures, in the first semester of there were 7. The cost of average broadband subscription increased In turn, there were deep inequalities in terms of penetration by provinces: while in the Au- tonomous City of Buenos Aires, it reached As of June , there were 13, 4G radio base stations in the country, almost the double of the previous year.
Fixed telephony, following the global trend, is a mature market and in vir- tual stagnation for ten years: in there were 9. Public TV During , the loss of audience and centrality in all media operated by the National State deepened. In the last stretch of the year, there were also budget cuts and reduction of the employee plant. It also dropped almost contracts in the area in charge of the TDA contents, a project that was virtually paralyzed.
August This consultant estimated that about 4. This way, lo- cal companies set production agreements with companies such as Turner, HBO, Televisa and TNT, among others, for the production of potential miniseries. However, the crisis in the sector is maintained, due to the de- crease of national fiction and the strong presence of international titles. Also, there is the unexpected result of high bet national fic- tion. This is the case of Fanny, la fan Undergound — Telefe , a com- edy that was originally programmed to be aired in prime time, but, one month later its premiere, and after changing time slots twice, it started to be broadcast online, also resulting in low ratings.
International trends As in previous years, the tendency of programming Turkish telenovelas and biblical transpositions from Brazil is maintained. Likewise, the denomination of season converges for the series and miniseries format, in a duration of less than one hour. Reality and entertainment programs whose format comes from abroad were in- corporated. Analysis of the year: national and Ibero-American premiere fic- tion Table 1. Revancha telenovela — Colombia Telefe — 5 national titles 1.
Fanny, la Fan comedy 5. Amo Despertar Contigo cont. Amores con Trampa telenovela — Mex- 5. Un Gallo para Esculapio series ico 7. El Maestro series 8. La Doble Vida de Estela Carrillo tele- 7. La Fragilidad de los Cuerpos minise- novela — Mexico ries 9. La Rosa de Guadalupe cont. Las Estrellas telenovela Mexico 9. Quiero Vivir a tu Lado telenovela Muchacha Italiana Viene a Casarse Cartoneros miniseries cont. Tres Veces Ana cont. Animadores miniseries Mexico Balas Perdidas miniseries Un Camino Hacia el Destino tele- La Pulsera miniseries Vino el Amor telenovela — Mexico Los Rampante miniseries Olimpia miniseries Celia cont.
Siete Vuelos miniseries Casados con Hijos comedy — Argen- 1. Source: Kantar Ibope Media and Obitel Argentina In , 39 titles were released, three fewer than in ; the number of repetitions also dropped. Like the previous year, Telefe and El Trece released nine fictions of their own. Out of the Obitel field, four Turkish and one Hindu fiction were issued. As a counterpart, the fictions of the Obitel field fall from 25 to 15 due to changes in the policy of El Nueve, which programmed fewer foreign telenovelas in its afternoons.
The co-production is gaining ground and this year four titles in which Argentina participates with companies such as Turner, Televisa and TNT were released. The privilege of national fiction is maintained in prime time. The novelty is the growth of Ibero-American fictions during this time, although its privilege remains in the afternoon hours. Table 3. The titles of the Obitel field predominate in the afternoon as in the previous year.
For the second year in a row, the national tele- novela increases in number of titles, episodes and hours broadcast. Regarding Ibero-American premiere fiction, the predominance of telenovela is maintained. Total 1 Argentina: the year in which national fiction did not find its audience 85 Table 6. Table 7. The ten most watched titles: origin, rating, share Country N.
The ten most watched national titles Country N. As in the previous year, Telefe issued seven of the ten most watched fictions. Among the national ones, we highlight the entry into the top ten of three co- production miniseries and a telenovela Fanny, la Fan, Telefe that was lifted from the air by low rating. Regarding the dominant themes of the top ten fiction programs, the interest in biblical dramas and religious themes continues. The national telenovelas cover more common themes such as union, the importance of family, betrayal and the search for love.
The minise- ries of co-production risk in their themes and approach from suicide and the exploration of sexuality to a realistic portrait of marginality and social conflicts. Table 8. There was a slight increase of 2. Transmedia reception In general terms, the transmedia reception of fiction in Argen- tina does not present particularly noteworthy actions since the main open television signals do not establish links that go beyond a series of referrals to the series itself, feeding the social networks in such a way that, in turn, they feed the visualization on the television screen.
In the field of nonfiction, however, the activity of viewers in differ- ent spaces presents a more creative and online response to events. In the field of information, in general, and sports and politics, in particular, the production of memes and videos that rework what is displayed is of great importance.
However, in the year under study, transmedia production and reception in our country maintains the usual spaces, especially on social networks Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and the websites of television signals. It is interesting to highlight some cases. However, despite being a series aimed at an adolescent audience, it was not successful either in a viewing on demand, and on its official Face- book page it only had 19 thousand followers. It is a story in which transmedia production could have been explored, due to the meta- discursive character that it entailed.
On the official page of the TV station only photos and videos of the backstage are offered, as well as some videos of the actors greeting the community that follows them. The VoD platform has more ways to access the chapters and their summaries than a true transmedia expansion. The other case of transmedia reception that is interesting to note is Las Estrellas, the most watched fiction of the year, which presents the story of the five daughters of Mr. Estrellas, who upon dying gives them a hotel, which they decide to manage together. Throughout the story, one of the sisters will discover her gay sexual preference.
In national fictions of previous years, this subject and mode of treatment have been well considered by the audience. In the transmedia reception, certain critical participations begin to appear more strongly, showing distance between the insistence of fiction in the development of the story and positions of the audience.
Deseo en el desierto / Amo y señor del desierto
Within the responses to the posting of the couple of women about Valentine, there are, among others, comments such as: Source: Facebook page El Trece — Las Estrellas In this way, we find that the fictions and proposals generated from the networks that produce the most fiction present a certain disorientation regarding the direction of the audience. In contrast, it is interesting to tell the case of a fiction that has jumped, this year, from the video on demand platforms to the television screen.
This inverse passage is interesting since its broadcast on the televi- sion screen revived its views on YouTube and fed back the com- ments that are enabled there. Highlights of the year In strategies are defined to maintain the audience of fic- tions in open television. With this objective, a large part of the pro- gramming and the audience turn to the narrations linked to the clas- sical melodramatic matrix. In this context, the Turkish telenovelas, the Brazilian productions from Record and the Mexican produc- tions from Televisa cover most of the programming hours, and in the first two cases they call the largest audiences.
Faced with this difficult scenario, national producers and open television networks propose different strategies. The first did not issue any because it was focused on entertainment and information, away from fiction. The second, although occupying big part of its time with fiction of Mexican origin, barely aired, in a marginal hour, a national minise- ries produced by state development fund.
Despite the production effort made, the telenovela did not exceed the low levels of audience that the state network has. However, in there was a renewal in the offer. The two daily programs drama Las Estrellas and comedy Quiero Vivir a tu Lado were produced exclusively by Pol-ka, as has been happening in recent years. The two weekly series El maestro and La Fragilidad de los Cuerpos were co-produced with international network TNT, being broadcast simultaneously by the cable signal at a different time.
The four fictions were shown during prime time with unequal luck. While telenovela Las Estrellas was the most watched national production program, comedy Quiero Vivir a tu Lado did not meet previous expectations and was sus- pended earlier than planned. Series El Maestro, interpreted by Julio Chavez the usual protagonist of this type of Pol-ka programs , did not reach the top ten of the national productions, but miniseries La Fragilidad de los Cuerpos had a greater impact, although limited within the low audience levels of Argentine fiction.
El Amor De Sus Sueños
Within the pro- gramming of El Trece there is a fall of comedy until a few years ago, the most popular fiction genre and a greater interest in minise- ries than in traditional series. The greatest fortune can be attributed to programs that, while preserving generic conventions love with difficulties, problems of identity , introduce renewed themes such as crossed couples, homosexual love, new views on motherhood or child exploitation.
Also it produced telenovela ADDA. The failure of Fanny, la fan expresses the fall of the interest for the local comedy and the success of the most conservative variants of the telenovela linked to its clas- sic matrix. The exception is series Un Gallo para Esculapio, which, with a view to a wider international audience, places its story in environments of marginality and poverty where cockfighting intro- duces a new content for the stories of Argentine television. In turn, telenovela ADDA. Focused on an exchange of couples, with lost and recovered identities, it renews the classic themes of telenovelas.
In general, it is possible to consider some common strategies in the main national productions, such as the tendency of formats reduction, approaching new themes maintaining the classical melo- dramatic narratives, and the abandonment of comedy. Theme of the year: TV fiction on video on demand platforms Two elements are fundamental to understand the panorama of fiction on video on demand VoD platforms. On the one hand, there is the concentration of companies that offer internet, telephony and television services, facilitated by the regulations promoted by the government since December During , this process is con- creted with the purchase of Telefe by Viacom, defining a project from a multiscreen perspective, where internet platforms appear as a fundamental axis.
At the same time, El Trece directs part of its fiction production by partnering with international cable networks and platforms. On the other hand, with the passing of the years, the fall in the rating of fictions broadcast by open television and the increase in the consumption of audiovisual stories through streaming on demand are verified simultaneously.
This platform had a slow start, but, according to data collected in the New Media Essentials report, from Business Bureau Consultancy, by August it had reached , unique sub- scribers, leading the video on demand segment. It was followed by: Cine. Despite these advances, the prophecies about the end of television are not yet fulfilled.
The same survey shows a lower prevalence of television in the sectors of greater purchasing power. While the trend of commercial production is oriented towards the stories for VoD, the serial narrative of the internet does not orig- inate either in the networks or in the producers of open TV. The first webseries made in Argentina started experimentally. This is how some producers were born, interspersing their work in webseries with advertisements, short films and video clips such as Tangram, Dontask, Macaco Films or Soleado Films.
These bets served to rehearse formal aspects and a narrative that manages a rhythm and duration of its own. Thus, producer Pol-ka launched in the first fiction for the web, Igual te Quiero, which extended to one of the stories addressed in television fiction Esperanza Mia, broadcast by El Trece that same year. In , Tele- fe released Primera Cita, a specific content for the internet. In addition, it distributed the six- episode web miniseries Secretarias.
In relation to the financing of VoD fictions, the business model is diffuse and is in the process of being transformed. In principle, state promotion played a key role. The Opera- tive Plan for the Support and Promotion of Digital Audiovisual Con- tent for TV carried out 43 contests and distributed subsidies, of which productions series, animations, short films and docu- mentaries were equivalent to 1, hours of content.
Some of them were programmed by private channels from the City of Buenos Ai- res and the countryside and by public channels, while others were not broadcast on television. Most of the productions were hosted at the Audiovisual Bank of Argentine Universal Content Bacua , a repository that distributed 12 thousand hours of programming to 74 public and private channels from all over the country. However, this VoD plat- form has been offline since October , so that fictions produced through state promotion are not available for public access. As an alternative, public platform Cine.
However, at present, it does not include public promotion series in its catalog and it maintains an offer that highlights the hits of private television, also giving the pay-per-view possibility for na- tional film premieres. From the point of view of government policy regulation, guid- ance has not yet defined a strategy for State intervention, except concerning the tax regime.
Following this posi- tion, in the Ministry of Communications prepares a prelimi- nary draft resolution that maintains that the provision of OTT ser- vices does not require a license, authorization, permit or registration of any kind. Silvana Giudici, coordinator of the drafting commis- sion for the new Communications Law and director of the National Communications Agency, believes that OTT should be considered in future regulation.
In this sense, it takes into account the need to promote and protect national audiovisual contents. The initiative was approved by the Culture Committee of the Chamber of Deputies and awaits its treatment. So far, the bulk of national webseries has been developed out- side of television production. There are few transmedia narratives that articulately use social networks and open or cable television. In this sense, it is worth highlighting UN3TV experience. At the same time, the project develops a web platform through which all its streaming programs can be accessed freely.
Most of the contents that are hosted on UN3TV and circulate on television are fiction and non-fiction webseries, for whose production the university provides resources to independent producers, who develop content with an aesthetic proposal and a novel narrative that points to ways of consumption characteristic of social networks.
They present a linear narrative structure, without the capacity for expansion or modification of the universes through the intervention of the specta- tors. Each chapter does not run for more than ten minutes, the plot is developed from few characters and in few locations. However, other programs have a strong link with forms of audiovisual narra- tion of the web: videoblogs, youtubers or influencers.
Some fictions focus on personalities from the web. For its part, the pro- grams of director Esteban Menis Un Mundo Horrendo and Dilemas Existenciales present a proposal halfway between docu-reality and fiction, whose themes and humor can be perceived as extensions of the content that the protagonist generates on Instagram. These are mixed with comic sketches, docu-reality, webseries and stand-up. The content of the stories, the tone and the protagonists of UN3TV expand the narrative universe of social networks and generate new forms that express the convergence between platforms and new me- dia.
References Baladron, M. Revista Fibra Labate and C. Arrueta coord. Mitchelstein, E. Smartphone, el aire que respiro. Re- vista Anfibia. Las series web argentinas crean nuevos lenguajes y se mul- tiplican. Tiempo Argentino. Nuevos medios, nuevos formatos y transtextualidad en las narrativas audiovisuales: ficciones seriadas en UN3TV. Santa Fe: Universidad Na- cional del Litoral. Investments in the areas of cre- ation, production, distribution, and marketing have led to a rapid and growing presence of fictional products and formats in differ- ent channels, whether in open or pay television, digital channels, streaming and mobile devices.
We exemplify with the pro- duction of a series that premieres on Globo Play with a start allocation in out-of-network or post-network channel with all the episodes of the first season, which allows watching it in a marathon or at the time the user wants to. After a while, we check its reallocation in a nar- rowcasting network — Mais Globosat — a paid channel, already with a time slot and some advertising breaks. Soon after, the same series has 1 Obitel Brazil team thanks Kantar Ibope Media, whose information, kindly provided, made it possible to carry out the analyses presented here.
Open TV in Brazil The Brazilian television system started being composed of sev- en national networks, with the entry, in , of a public station, TV Cultura. Thus, there are five private and two public broadcasters. Only RedeTV! Brazil: dynamics of television fiction in the multichannel transition The national audience for open TV grew compared to , from Globo is still leading, with an increase of 0. Band, in the third position, had a decrease from 1.
There was a decrease in the audi- ence of RedeTV! Even with a loss of 2. It is not possible to compare the index to that of the open channels since it reflects the sum of the audiences of the pay TV broadcasters. As for the other broadcasters, the share on TLE remained stable fluctuations below one percentage point.
The penetration of the audience in the year decreased in all means5, except for the internet. In third place, we have the internet, which, with an increase of 3. Next, in order, radio, pay TV, cinema and magazines, which started occupying the last position. Internet was the only means with an increase, going from Source: Kantar Ibope Media. While information and entertainment grew more than 3 points each, fiction remained stable. The other genres had small oscillations from one point up religious or down sport. Audience trends over the year Telenovelas were the highlight of the audience in Two productions of 9 PM set records.
Accessed in: Mar. Brazil: dynamics of television fiction in the multichannel transition The Brazilian time in front of the TV has been growing since The daily average went from 5h57min in to 6h04min in , an increase observed mainly between the ages of 18 and 24 years an increase of 6. Advertising investments: in TV and in fiction Advertising investment in television in grew again, after a slight decrease in We have noticed a significant increase in investments in out-of-home OOH media and digital formats. The first one advertisements in com- mercial buildings, street clocks, subways, etc.
These include advertisements on internet websites display and search engines such as Google search. In the open TV, the main advertisers were, in order: commerce; personal hygiene, and beauty; pharmaceutical; financial and security; public and social administration. Acesso em: mar. An example is the scene in which a char- acter discovers that his driver is a cross-dresser in a lingerie show.
In the same telenovela, there was merchandising crossover, unprec- edented until then9: two characters shopped at the hotel shop of the 7 PM plot, Pega Pega.
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